Handmade jewelry, handpainted candles and much more....

Friday, December 31, 2010


                       **** SNOW ****

                      Falling on my head

                  Chilling my soul to the bone

                     Can't wait to get home.

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose

Snow 12-31-10 - 2 002.JPG

Thursday, December 30, 2010


   *****  MORNING SCENTS  *****

                                  Early rise in morn

                          Bread making to warm the hearth

                               Can't wait for breakfast.

©Vallee Rose 2010
Bread 12-30-10 003.JPG

Wednesday, December 29, 2010


                       *** A DOG'S LIFE ***

                    I run real hard every morn

                     Then beg for my treats

                Sleep, chew rawhide, ask for play.

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose 2010

Couldn't get the green out of the eyes.


Tuesday, December 28, 2010


               ***** A CAT'S LIFE *****

                    Curled up in a ball

               Awaiting the next food run

                     My kitty Bootsie!

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose

Bootsie - 09-04-10 001.JPG

Monday, December 27, 2010



People meeting here and there -
Souls intertwining within auras -
Spirits creating connections
lasting if only for a moment
yet never forgetting
the link
between hearts,
the energy exchanged,
the never-ending impression
of someone who cares
about your being.

©Vallee Rose 2010

Sunday, December 26, 2010


                  ****  SUNSHINE ****

                    Needed for the Earth

                Warming up the ground below

                     Welcoming the birds....

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose

Photo cards

One of my photo cards - sorry isn't cropped.

Saturday, December 25, 2010

Blessings to everyone on this Day!

       ***** CELEBRATIONS *****

                       Time for Unity

              Time for Reflection of Soul

                   Spirit and Friendship

©Vallee Rose 2010

Friday, December 24, 2010


                            ****  EVENING ****

                               The day is over

                      Stars and moon appear above

                           Time to rest the soul. 

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose


Thursday, December 23, 2010


                  *****  MORNING CHILL *****

                         Winter morning calls

                    Foggy walks with moon and stars

                           Chill crossing the face

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose 2010


Oregon 2005

Wednesday, December 22, 2010


                     *****  SMILES *****

                           Angels in the sky

                      Wishing us all a good day

                        Remember to smile!

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose


Tuesday, December 21, 2010


                 ***** MORNING RIBBONS *****

                                           Reds and Blues in Sky

                               Crossing the Heavens Above

                                  Morn Ribbons Aglow.

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose


Monday, December 20, 2010


                     ****  DOG RUN ****

                             Running the dog in the morn

                                Watching overhead

                         As morning lights brighten sky

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose


Sunday, December 19, 2010


               *****  LIGHTHOUSE *****

                    Standing tall and thin

              Keeping boats and captains safe

                    As waves roll in

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose


Oregon Coast circa 2005

Saturday, December 18, 2010


                      ***** NORTHERN WATERS *****

                     Rocks standing alone

                  Causing current of water

                       To flow into land. 

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose 2010


North Oregon shore (2005)

Friday, December 17, 2010


                       ****   FIRST SNOW  ****

                    Flurries in the Sky

                Covering Mother Earth white

                   Much needed moisture.

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose

Photo taken several years ago.... have to find the more recent ones. 


Tuesday, December 14, 2010


                   ****  EVENING COLORS *****

                     ORANGE, PINK AND BLUE


                     INTRODUCING NIGHT

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose


Monday, December 13, 2010


          *****  PINK CLOUDS *****

                      Pink clouds up above

                Swirling through sky as water

                      Beckoning new day!

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose


Sunday, December 12, 2010


                         ****  LEAVES   ****

                                     Colors of the World

                                     Falling down upon our heads

                                               Winter is coming.....

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose 2010

autumn colors 10-20-10 006.JPG

Saturday, December 11, 2010


                         **** PETROGLYPHS ****

                  Words of the Ancients

                   Telling us stories of old

                    Remembrance of past. 

Napua O'lokelani
© Vallee Rose 2010


Friday, December 10, 2010



Breezes blow.
Clouds disappear.
Stars sparkle above
barely visible as the
horizon glows of red.
Streaming angelic bodies;
harmonizing voices.
The moon crescents
left-over wispy clouds
reflect billowing pink strands
of sunlight
creating the ultimate
of Sunsets.

Napua O'lokelani
© Vallee Rose 1995

Sunset 10-13-10 008.JPG

Thursday, December 9, 2010


                          *****    ALIVE    ******

                    Silence before dawn

                 Bringing Mother Earth alive

                      Another new day

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose

Sunrise 10-03-10 001.JPG

Wednesday, December 8, 2010

Fluttering Leaf

Fluttering Leaf

Leaf green
Breeze caressing
Slowly to the ground
Dancing swirls
Penetrating spirit
Soul sings

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose 2004

autumn colors 10-20-10 010.JPG

Tuesday, December 7, 2010



Wolf roams the wilderness
alone - yet not.
Each howl;
each silent move assisted
by those gone unseen.
Watching his territory.
Defending what is his -
Loyal, responsible
to his calling.

Moon talks as it rises high
growing from darkness to light
walking with the wolf
each step -

each gaze -
until the cycle repeats
as winter to spring,
summer to fall.

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose 2001

(Not my photo)

Snow moon wolf howling

Sunday, December 5, 2010


                 *****   SUNRISE  *****

                     A sunrise begins     

              Morning glows after nights pass

                     A new day to praise! 

Napua O'lokelani  
©Vallee Rose 2010


Saturday, December 4, 2010


                           *****   SILENCE ******

                             The buzzing of bees

                         Chirping of the morning birds

                              Heard only in quiet.   

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose

Thursday, December 2, 2010


Written for a class:


Serenely sweet sings the sparrow;
How do I cherish my love!

With wishes and kisses
succumbing to blisses
is how I cherish my love.

Commonly comical chirps the canary;
How do I cherish my love!

With miles of smiles
intertwined with trials
is how I cherish my love.

Hauntingly hungry hammers the hummingbird;
How do I cherish my love!

With rivers of shivers
within my quivers
is how I cherish my love.

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose


Wrote this for a poetry class....


Dellece awaited this moment
with enduring patience -
the arrival of her
prince charming
galloping up on his stead
of brilliant white
to consummate the
scintillating attraction
of two quivering lovers.

He enveloped her within
his robust forearms
showering her golden locks
with unending kisses
immersing Dellece
into a
land of enchantment
as they mingles
their souls
into ONE.

©Vallee Rose

Wednesday, December 1, 2010




A new life
encompassed by the
Divine -
Penetrated by the
Source -
Pierced by the
sweet sword of
Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose 2005

Monday, November 29, 2010



Angelic space
within the planes -

mind racing -
no boundaries -
thought unlimited -
possibilities forever -
no ending -
no beginning -
no future -
no past -
NOW...... the light
contrasted by the
of your
Soul -

Napua O'lokelani
©Vallee Rose

Sunday, November 28, 2010

Have no idea how to send a link for this so here is my thesis....

(Diagnostic & Statistical Manual
Of Mental Disorders)

Vallee Rose


INTRODUCTION                                 1

OCCULT HISTORY                             3

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE DSM                     7

PSYCHIC PATHOLOGIES                        15

CONCLUSION                                    26


     Many individuals presenting themselves at Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs), psychotherapist offices, physician offices and other health professional doorsteps with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychotic features may not actually be mentally ill but rather may be experiencing a type of psychic or spiritual madness.  During the last several years as I worked at a local CMHC, I found myself confronted with hundreds of individuals whose symptoms could be explained by the DSM, the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.  Yet, these symptoms did not appear to be caused by chemical imbalances in their brains needing remediation through the use of medication, but rather by their inexperience with the occult resulting in what Fortune refers to as “psychic pathologies“ (133). 
     For purposes of this thesis, I will use Fortune‘s definition of occult science as being “the link between psychology and religion” (25) where occult phenomena can refer to, but is not limited to, such areas of interest as: psychometry, clairvoyance in all its forms, telepathy, the various forms of divination, hypnotism, reincarnation and hauntings.  Dion Fortune was the founder of The Society of the Inner Light and is recognized as one of the most  significant figures of 20th century esoteric thought.  The definition of psychic pathologies found in her book What is Occultism? was written during the mid-1920’s.  Consequently, this is not a new phenomena, but rather one that has been pushed outside the realm of acceptable medical practice to this day.  Fortune explained that there are three areas of psychic pathologies arising from “ignorance and inexperience”.  She describes these pathologies as: problems of hypersensitivity when one is improperly trained, the blending with other entities without the knowledge of how to break the connection and protect oneself, and the dissociation of the personality (133).  Occult science began as a part of a religious system.  As with all religious systems, this Sacred Science was approached with reverence entailing strict discipline and training.  Fortune described this science as being a gateway into the Unseen where one will enter madness if she/he gets caught “in the land of phantasms” between the sub-consciousness and super consciousness (26).  Just as someone would not enter a calculus course without first understanding elementary math and algebra, no one can safely delve into the occult  without proper training and guidance.  And yet, this is exactly what has transpired particularly in the Western civilizations within the last half century.  As inexperienced individuals are acquiring occult information without the appropriate training, most quickly find themselves within unknown and uncharted waters within their knowledge base.  These individuals have delved into the Unseen with no skill on how to return to safety, thus becoming spiritually or psychically mad.  These experiences do not fit into the realm of conventional psychology.  Consequently, as these individuals are screaming for help, psychology is either turning them away or misdiagnosing them.
     I propose to introduce a complementary approach to psychological symptoms that does not exclude clinical diagnosis of mental illness as defined by the DSM; but expands these diagnoses to include psychic pathologies, or psychic/spiritual madness, resulting from lack of knowledge and naïveté of delving into psychic phenomena.


     Since the beginning of time, there have been “states of consciousness which transcend the normal, and when these states prevail, we can discern forms of existence with which normally we have no contact” (Fortune, 8).  Thus the correlation between occult science and religion.  Defined by the dictionary, religion is “the service and worship of God or the supernatural” (Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 1993 ed. 988), those things with which we normally do not have contact.  Individuals have had contact with the Unseen since the beginning of time.  Shamanism has been practiced for centuries by indigenous people.  Shamans divine the hidden and control unseen events to cure the sick.  They are the priests and priestesses of the tribes who undergo intense training before they are allowed to enter into the territory of the Unseen.  Medicine men, the shamans of the Native Americans, are also healers tapping into this Unseen world. Occult science is part of this ancient world where previously only a few entered into the realm of the Unseen including Egyptian priestesses, Chaldean Magi, Essenes, Gnostics, and theurgic Neo-Platonists.     
     However, occult science became available to any sincere in heart and dedicated to the study when Mme. Blavasky founded the Theosophical Society in Europe in the late 1800’s.   Then in the year 1882, the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) was formed in Britain. Psychic phenomena had begun to enter the peripheries of mainstream society.  Hypnosis was practiced; Freud studied telepathic dreams; Jung used dream analysis with his patients to unravel their shadow, or unknown,  side; and psychometry, or the soul-measurement of an article, was eventually discovered in the 1950’s.  Occult science has always studied the powers of control over various forces in Nature.  This is not to be confused with the belief of spiritualism where supernatural events take place but without any type of control or understanding.  In spiritualism, spirits are considered the key element of reality rather than superpowers.   Man has no powers over meandering spirits, only the forces of Nature.
     This does not eliminate evidence of the occult within the religious or spiritual realm.  The occult has survived within the confines of monastic walls for centuries.  Historically, it was known that to enter the life of a mystic was to create chaos within one’s known scheme of functioning.  Monks and nuns routinely experienced occult phenomena such as: visions, levitation, bi-location and channeling the voice of the Divine.  James explained in his work The Varieties of Religious Experience that even these highly trained “religious geniuses have often shown symptoms of nervous instability… frequently they have fallen into trances, heard voices, seen visions, and presented all sorts of peculiarities which are ordinarily classed as pathological” (27).  This alone demonstrates the severity of delving into the Unknown without guidance.  In addition, it often seems that these very pathological symptoms are what gives religious beings more authenticity.  Padre Pio, an Italian Catholic mystic, earned the title of “living saint” while still alive.  He was witnessed as possessing the “stigmata” or the “wounds of Christ”, as well as being able to bi-locate.  Dr. Caroline Myss, author and medical intuitive, explains that “mystics have a different rapport with time and space” (Why People Don’t Heal, Side B). 
     The desire of such powers often inappropriately encourages individuals seeking a spiritual path.  They misunderstand the true nature of the spiritual journey, to be One with the Divine.  Instead, this desire of powers can lead them straight into the occult world providing them with a variety of unrefined and potentially dangerous information.  These individuals searching for a spiritual life may easily come across this unrefined occult knowledge within books located at any local “New Age” bookstores.  For example, metaphysical writings address the fundamental realities of nature and often times give instructions on how to use natural realities to open up your energy systems or chakras.  However, these books seldom mention the realities of over-energizing your system or how to protect yourself from unwanted energies.  Additionally, spiritual writings may include discussions on how to connect with the Divine and channel angelic entities.  But these same writings don‘t mention the challenges if you happen to connect with an unwanted energy which is not angelic in nature.  The authors of these books intermingle religion, psychology and the occult usually with no knowledge of their faults.  Unfortunately,  neither acceptance nor understanding  of these supernatural forces has ever been truly assimilated into our belief system, and consequently are not acknowledged by our psychological doctors.  I have witnessed individuals with the  purest of hearts  end up with a clinical diagnosis because they felt possessed by an unwanted spirit; they had merely inadvertently invited the entity into their auric space with no knowledge of how to ask it to leave.  
     Jung was aware of this dilemma of psychic phenomena being scorned by science as is demonstrated by his statement that, “It is a rational presupposition of ours that everything has a natural and perceptible cause… there is no legitimate place in our world for invisible, arbitrary and so-called supernatural forces” (130). Jung was also aware during his time that, the acceptance of the soul or psyche within the realm of psychology was no more advanced than it was in 1933 as he said, “To grant substantiality of the soul or psyche is repugnant to the spirit of the age, for to do so would be heresy“ (177).  He argued with the scientific concept of the era that claimed unusual events cannot be measured.  He said, “There is a real measure of probability that unusual events will coincide in time and place” (137).   Quantum theory, itself, is
based on assumptions that cannot  be measured.  As Eisenbud points out, “Science, it is claimed, cannot even begin to formulate physical theories… without making the most sweeping metaphysical assumptions and without taking into account unobservable and unmeasurables of all kinds (31).  Though science progresses as we speak learning new ways to measure the correspondences between events; that which parapsychology studies; the two remain very distinct and separate fields of study.     
     Today, the occult is accepted within mainstream society only within the Hindu religion of the Eastern world. The Hindus believe that certain individuals with intense devotion and training are able to acquire unusual powers.  The Western world has adopted a more Judeo-Christian tradition based on the belief of fundamental laws of nature with a divine lawgiver (Capra 286-87); thus discrediting the occult science in this hemisphere.  Scientists have compounded this situation in several ways.  They profess that anything ‘secret’ must not be valid.  They have forgotten that the scientists of long ago also worked in secret, teaching only the most carefully selected students the knowledge of their science (Sinnett 2).  Today, the study to be an recognized occultist requires the same degree of intense training as it does to be a reputable scientist.   But science has also determined that all events must be defined in terms of causality; a so-called causal connection between the events.  Consequently, occult science, once more, continues to be defined as a quasi-science outside of the realms of religion or psychology.  While religion has become a study of dogmas, science has become a study of causality.  The question then arises, when these individuals meet the ‘madness’ of the superpowers, where do they go for assistance?


     Psychology, as a study, may seem a fairly new field having its beginnings with Freud’s psychological theories at the turn of the 20th century.  It was during this time that psychology became the study of the psyche while philosophy focused on the study of the world (Jung, 179).  Despite its complexity, psychology had merely been considered a branch of philosophy prior to that time.  Today, in my opinion, psychology remains a misunderstood and devalued science.  It is a multifaceted discipline where any and all dealings not fitting the scientific mold have been rejected and consequently categorized as parapsychology.  Simply defining the word psychology is a difficult task.  According to the dictionary, psyche is defined as the soul or spirit firstly, and as the mind secondly (942).    However, also, according to the dictionary, psychology means “the science of mind and behavior” (943).  So what is it?  Is psychology the study of the mind, spirit, soul and/or behavior?  But what is the mind?  Again, turning to the dictionary we learn that the mind means “recollection, memory” and/or “the element or complex of elements in an individual that feels, perceives, thinks, wills, and especially reasons” (740).  Additionally, behavior is defined as “the manner of conducting oneself” (103).  In summary, according to these definitions, psychology would be the science of memory and the complex of elements in an individual that feels, perceives, thinks, wills, and especially reasons; and the manner in which individuals conduct themselves.  By reviewing the former definition, psychology becomes the study of the immaterial essence of an individual’s life or soul (1123) or the study of the “vital principle held to give life to physical organisms“, spirit (1134).  It appears that these definitions cover all aspects of both psychology and parapsychology studies.  Yet, only the psychological studies fitting within the scientific mold of the era are deemed scientifically acceptable. Consequently, the study of psychology remains indistinct  and open to interpretation.
     Myss provides an overview of the psychological makeup of mankind which helps to explain the confusion regarding this study of psychology.   Myss explains that our world goes through astrological ages equivalent to the twelve signs of the zodiac.  She believes that the three most recent astrological ages are Aries, running from about 2000 B.C. to the birth of Christ; Pisces, running for the next 2000 years more or less; and Aquarius, the current age which should end around the year 4000 (Why People Don‘t Heal and How They Can 68).  Myss continues to describe each of these ages.  The age of Aries she relates to tribal power, the principle that all is one.  Tribal power goal is for group strength and physical endurance.  Myss demonstrates  the pros and cons of the tribal mind.  As an infant, we are in need of being protected from external influences.  In return, we enter into a pact with our tribe, or family, in terms of loyalty, ethics and a code of honor.  On the positive side, we learn about these traits which can guide us as we mature.  However, on the negative, or shadow side, we may forego loyalty to ourselves (Anatomy 105-109; Why People Don‘t Heal and How they Can 68-74).
     The next age, Piscean Age, represents individual power and the concept to honor one another.  This was a time allowing individuals to form a separate identity while still honoring the essence of tribal beliefs.  “It encouraged the growth of all that the self could discover, notably science and medicine“ (Why People Don‘t Heal and How They Can 75), but seemingly discarding any psychic experiences one may have witnessed.  The Piscean Age successfully eliminated the soul or spirit from the definition of the psyche, thus defining psychology as the study of the self and the mind.  Psychology had become the study of the personality; an individual‘s behaviors and emotions but not their experiences.  Science had completely immersed itself within the materialistic world.
     The DSM was created during this era, the era proclaiming individual choice yet still embedded within this tribal biology, a paradox within itself.  The DSM was originally developed as a classification of mental disorders for statistical purposes, and only later used for diagnosing patients with severe psychiatric and neurological disorders.  The statistics were gathered as part of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).  The ICD-6, published after World War II in order to better serve its veterans, was the first edition that included mental disorders.  Veterans were people who fought for their tribe, or their country; they were respected citizens.  In following Myss’ explanations, these citizens carried the past Aries tribal beliefs to protect their  tribe from rivals.  The country, then, honored these individuals from the Piscean ‘honor one another’ code by responding to these citizen’s needs once they returned home.  This is an example of how we preserve past beliefs within our cellular systems as we incorporate others.  Shortly, thereafter in 1952,  the first edition of the DSM was published.  Since that time four editions of the DSM have been published with several revisions in-between.  Not one of these editions have ever addressed a psychic pathology even though only a few years prior to the first edition being published, neuroses was defined as psychic disturbances (Jung, 55).  It seems that as we entered into this materialistic era, psychologists followed scientific thought by defining mental illness by the Bell Curve or the world of ’averages’.  If symptoms occurred from scenarios not understood within the accepted scientific arena, scenarios outside the realm of average or normal, then the individual was labeled as being mentally ill.  Despite the relativity theory and the quantum theory being based on concepts not explainable by scientific terms, they continue to be the basis of new scientific data.  And yet, the acceptance of psychic activity within the scientific realm remains taboo. 
     This Piscean Age was also the era of the Hamarrabi Code describing an eye for an eye justice, thus implanting in our biology the belief of reward and punishment.  People are considered ‘good’ if they follow the religious path and ‘bad’ if they don’t.  This has been translated into today’s terms as the fallacy that if one follows a spiritual journey then they will be rewarded with an absence of chaos.  This alone has been bringing clients banging on psychotherapists’ doors.  Consequently, it is my opinion that the DSM is based on maintaining these tribal belief patterns of honoring one’s family and maintaining the status quo, rather than being a system to assist individuals into the new Aquarian Age.   It not only keeps us embedded in the 20th century materialistic age rather than assisting our spiritual growth into the new millennium, but also creates a scenario where those individuals following this new spiritual path are often being mistakenly diagnosed as having a mental illness.  (Why People Don’t Heal Tape I, Side B).
     Myss explains in her book, Why People Don’t Heal And How They Can,  how this new age dilemma was sparked .  She discusses two events that happened in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s, representing a “global mind-shift”.  These events allowed access of sacred texts to the lay person, which had up until that point been strictly for the eyes of inner academic circles.  She explains that the forcing of the Dalai Lama out of his homeland by the Communists and the result of the Vatican II Council both began “the merger of Eastern and Western spiritual traditions” and an entrance for “mystical spirituality” into the mainstream (85).  Beginning in the 1960’s, psychology became a household word.  Prior to that time, individuals would consult a clinician only when unable to function within their expected roles.  Most times the clinician consulted was a medical doctor who would prescribe some type of medication to reduce the troublesome symptoms.  If an individual’s behavior became too bizarre, they would be placed within a mental institution where their activities could be monitored.  Simple malaise was kept to one’s self and the idea of searching within oneself for happiness was completely foreign.  We lived within our tribal expectations not even having a vocabulary for intimacy.  However, as veterans returned home after the World War and were unable to return to their pre-war level of functioning; the tribe or country, had to respond.  Shell shock, known today as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), became known as an acceptable mental illness within the medical or scientific realm.  When the new age dawned and the psychological gates were opened in the 1960’s, the definition of PTSD was broadened to cover additional traumas.  Helping oneself became acceptable.  Clients began to flock to psychotherapists’ offices in order to process their inner child, their shameful feelings and having grown up in dysfunctional families.  Finally, as we have entered the Aquarian Age, the age that comes after the monastic walls have crumbled and has placed sacred texts on bookstore shelves, we begin to truly honor ourselves (Why People Don‘t Heal and How They Can 85-93) and have begun to ponder not only how our dysfunctional families may have affected our lives, but also as to the meaning of our existence.   We have become caught within a web of our own desires for meaning in life with only a psychology of yesterday and ancient religious dogma to help us along.


     Occult science incorporates the study of what individuals feel and perceive, thus, merging with the field of psychology.  A dilemma arises when we realize that cellularly we hold onto our tribal belief system which tempts us to feel and perceive only what the average person can feel and perceive.  This eliminates the concept of superpowers from existence.  Or does it?  The definitions of psychology explored in the beginning of this paper are confusing enough without additionally studying Webster’s definition of psychoanalysis and its method of analyzing psychic phenomena, that phenomena related to the psyche (942).  Here we have a branch of psychology based on Jungian thought dealing primarily with psychic experience (Pascal, 69).  Jung believed “archetypal ideas, springing from the collective unconscious, manifested themselves” as psychic experiences affecting one’s psyche (Eisenbud 37).  In addition, he studied the psychoanalysis of dreams in order to better understand his patients.  Freud had admitted to his belief of telepathy in 1919 (Colin 157) and conducted experiments with telepathic dreams to assist him in explaining patient’s distress.  Despite Jung’s reputation within the field of psychology, his awareness of the split within psychological thought was ignored.  He said that “there is not one modern psychology - there are several” (179).  Unfortunately, the division of psychology addressing occult science and the realm of the superpowers were eliminated from mainstream psychology as science became entrenched within the goal of materialism.  To this day, occult science remains an arena of parapsychology withheld from the  knowledge presented within the education of today’s mainstream psychology students.   The result of this separation is causing a precarious void within the psychological field.  While the DSM continues to focus on symptoms rather than underlying events: someone hearing voices, or experiencing telepathic instructions, is automatically considered a probable psychotic.; individuals delving into parapsychological information found in their local bookstores may be hearing angelic voices for the first time and become anxious due to not knowing if their experience is real or if they may actually be going insane.  This anxiety may bring them to a CMHC where they will then have to make the decision to focus on the anxiety, an acceptable diagnosis, or talk about the voices, an unacceptable diagnosis to them.  In either case, the individual will be misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately.  This is not a rare phenomena these days.  
     Rows upon rows of books claiming their assistance to anyone searching for more meaning in their life, for a spiritual direction, can be found on bookstore shelves.   One can walk into any popular bookstore and purchase books on self-improvement,  Buddhism, Hinduism, how to interpret your dreams, hypnotize yourself or how to heal yourself from disease.   If one walks into a  metaphysical bookstore, they will be welcomed by books that fifty years ago were considered writings of the devil, witchcraft or sorcery… words of black magic.  As one peruses the aisles titles of books including words such as angels, the Cabbala, chakras, color therapy, dreams, ESP, extraterrestrials, hauntings, magnetism, psychic, past-lives, reincarnation, soul, spirit guides, sound therapy, Wicca, astral projection and near-death experiences are to be found on every shelf.  Self-teaching books of divination by palmistry, tarot cards, numerology, runes and astrology are in abundance.  These books are intermingled with themes on how to raise the dead, meditate, conduct a séance and Taoism.  It is no surprise to me that individuals are going ‘mad‘ for it is implied that within an afternoon, we can divine our future while meeting our spirit guides and talking with the Divine all before the children come home.
     Due to the non-acceptance of paranormal activities by mainstream science, psychological theory no longer incorporates appropriate responses to today’s psychological issues.  Men of the cloth, also, do not have the answers as they continue to be led by the concept that God is a lawgiver.  As we cry out for spiritual and conscious lives, we search bookstores and libraries for information of hidden psychic knowledge.  Yet we spend only an afternoon studying such material before we attempt to put it into practice.  We want fast answers to questions that have intrigued us since the beginning of mankind.  We attempt to understand mysteries within an ancient mind frame, tribal loyalty, as we proceed into the spiritual age of loyalty to self.  Consequently, occult science continues to flounder in no man’s land as are those who have delved into the occult with no direction.  To make matters worse, we have no professionals that can direct and guide us.  Psychology has become a science not acknowledging spiritual or psychic phenomena, and religion has become the study of dogmas.
     Zukav believes, as Myss does, that we are in need of a spiritual psychology that will address the “shattered spirit” for he says that “all psychoses and psychotic breakdowns will finally, eventually, be put into its proper language which is shattered spirit” (197).  Zukav continues to say that “when the personality operates outside of the genetic pattern of holism, dysfunction results” (201).  This belief is not new.  Jung stated in his book Modern Man in Search of a Soul that “about a third of my cases are suffering from no clinically definable neurosis, but from the senselessness and emptiness of their lives” (61).   We have known for almost a century that there is more to a person’s psyche than chemical imbalances; we have known that psychic experiences do exist and yet we continue to shun those searching for the truth simply because they don’t fit within our scientifically based diagnostic categories.
     An answer to many of these dilemmas has already been found within  the occult.  As defined by Fortune, “Occult Science… is the link between psychology and religion; it gives the means of a spiritual approach to science, and a scientific approach to the spiritual life” (25).   Occult science has always dealt with the capacities of the human soul and spirit; it has been a mystical path dealing with the spiritual dimension of humanity.  It incorporates the knowledge of Jung’s dream analysis; the experiments of telepathy by Freud; and the Eastern beliefs of life force, whether called  chi, prana or vital life force.  I propose that we begin to treat individuals with a holistic approach combining the scientific knowledge of the DSM with the paranormal knowledge of the occult.  Many holistic counselors today are well aware of various holistic healings such as the use of hypnosis, visualization, chakra therapy and healing with crystals.  However, without appropriate psychological and occult studies, these healings become an event with little depth change within the psyche.  I believe that Thomas Moore explains the need for holistic healing explicatively in the forward of Sandra Lee Dennis’ Embrace of the Daimon when he wrote, “It is refreshing to reach the dynamic whereby we give soul earthly reality instead of psychologizing experience into the bodiless ether of pure reflection (x).


     Book titles such as: You Can Become Psychic and Improve Your Psychic Skills imply that every person has psychic powers.  While this is true, just as everyone with a voice has the power to sing, natural gifts and proper training are required for its highest achievements.  Psychic studies are both the nursery school and the PhD of the occult.  For this reason most problems arise in this area.  The common individual is unaware of the dangers of innocence and inexperience.  Books on Occult Science are intermingled with books on metaphysics, a division of philosophy “that is concerned with the fundamental nature of reality” (Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 1993 ed., 730), as well as religion and UFO‘s.  Unless a student truly understands what the occult is, they will find themselves searching for psychic powers while trying to speak with the Divine and levitate simultaneously.  To begin with all individuals do have psychic powers to some degree and all psychics are also sensitives; individuals who are extremely sensitive to all that is around them both from the astral realm as well as from others.  It has become normal within certain circles to speak of mystical events in our lives and working with our chakras even though we don’t truly have the vocabulary or knowledge of these areas of life.  Consequently, as individuals begin to open up their psychic side they may begin to experience sensations that are new to them and become fearful of the experience.  Rapid change of moods may occur as the sensitive is unable to sort out their own emotions from others.  They may feel as if they are colliding with a bulldozer head on.  Suicidal thought may arise and a deep depression may take over as the sensitive attempts to incorporate his new sensations with the world he knows around him.  This alone can cause a madness sending an individual for assistance when nothing is clinically wrong; the sensitive merely entered a world without guidance.  Myss defines this as a necessary “spiritual madness” if one truly wishes to enter the spiritual world (Spiritual Power, Tape I, Side A).  However, most individuals do not have the appropriate knowledge to realize that they may not be insane.
     Whether attempting to gain powers for personal reasons or honestly attempting to search for the meaning of one’s life, the originating symptomology is usually identical.  These individuals become overwhelmed by merely walking  into a store and experiencing the mirage of emotions.  These individuals can sense someone walking down the hall and what they are going to ask; they can feel the anger when someone becomes mad.  It’s as if they have walked outside on a brisk autumn afternoon wearing only a bathing suit.  They feel every wisp of wind and the intense change of temperatures as the clouds roll over the sun.  These individuals need quiet, sheltered lives and understanding to not be diagnosed as mentally ill.  However, within a world where bills need paying and children need tending, these same individuals are lucky to be able to find five minutes to themselves within a day.  Even while sleeping, they pick up on their partner’s feelings and dreams.  It is no surprise that most of these individuals end up either at their doctor’s or therapist’s doorstep.
     Many times these individuals develop depressive symptomology. They may feel a chronic fatigue due to their chaotic energetic lives.  They may lose interest in all outside activities and become agoraphobic attempting to eliminate all possible outside stimuli.  Some sensitives become so fatigued that they even lose pleasure in normally pleasant solo activities and contemplate suicide.  Others experience difficulty sleeping not being able to prevent outside stimuli from affecting their rest or become so exhausted as to not be able to awaken.  Confusion and inability to focus is common.  These events usually weigh on a person’s sense of self causing them to feel worthless and often guilty about their perceived inability to lead a normal life.  When these individuals present themselves at a psychotherapist’s office, the symptoms are examined and a diagnosis from the DSM is given.  In this case,  a Major Depressive Disorder may labeled upon the individual (DSM 375-76).  At times, the symptoms are not as severe but have lasted for so many years that it has become difficult to tell if the person is behaving differently than from their normal functioning.  This is common when an individual has been a sensitive from birth, never fulfilling their potential due to their inability to enter into the mainstream of life.  When this occurs, the individual may be labeled with Dysthymic Disorder (DSM 380).  If the depressive symptomology does not seem to fit into these categories, a label of Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) may be attached to the individual (DSM 381). No further evaluations are necessary; no additional arenas are entered into except the arena of the DSM.
     Sensitives may also experience additional difficulties.  After a time of experiencing depression and isolating oneself, the sensitive may feel they have the stamina to rejoin the world.  Their guilt from feeling they were not living up to their potential may create a feeling of loss of time.  At this point, the sensitive often becomes very goal-directed in their activities accompanied with feelings of an unusually high self-esteem and decreased need of sleep.  I have even known sensitives who have slept only every other day for several hours during this period of being goal-directed.  Unfortunately, when the energies run this fast,  these individuals can become easily distracted and excessively involved with pleasurable activities making up for lost time.  When this symptomology presents itself, the individual may be considered as experiencing a manic episode (DSM 362).  If these manic episodes are interspersed with depressive episodes then a bipolar diagnosis is usually noted (DSM 388-89).  Even when the manic symptoms are considered not to cause a significant impairment in functioning but are different from the normal non-depressed mood, a diagnosis of hypomanic can be given (DSM 368).  I have witnessed many sensitives who appear hypomanic within our society, when in reality they are merely responding to all the stimuli around them.
     When a psychic begins to delve into the clairvoyant, clairaudient and clairsentience realms, often known as channeling, they will begin to sense either feelings, voices or smells of another astral plane.  This can happen when an inexperienced person begins yoga or starts a meditation practice by themselves.  These practices open the person up to a higher consciousness including the “collective consciousness” as explained by Jung and the daimonic realm as described by Dennis.  If an individual presents themselves at a therapist’s office without the knowledge of what is happening to them, they may explain their symptoms in terms of hearing voices or seeing things that others do not see; symptoms usually referred to as hallucinations.  Even though the individual may feel that they are not schizophrenic, they have no other avenue to pursue especially if these symptoms are bothersome.  Others may feel that they have spoken to the Divine and experience a feeling of grandiosity.  If the situation only occurred during a short period of time, more than one day but less than a month, the DSM diagnosis for that individual would be Brief Psychotic Disorder (332).  However, if these symptoms persisted as the individual continued to solely practice his new-found spiritual practice, a diagnosis of Psychosis NOS may be associated with  this individual (DSM 343).  Additionally, if partners began experiencing these symptoms simultaneously as they began a practice together, the diagnosis of Shared Psychotic Disorder could be used (DSM 334).  One needs to be aware, as well, that as one opens their higher centers; commonly referred to as chakras; to the unconscious world, they also need to know how to close them.  Without proper closure, not only does the individual continue to pick up on feelings, voices and smells from the higher plane, but they also begin to experience what I consider a meltdown: an overload of all mental facilities.  This alone can cause an individual to feel as if they are going insane.
     Unfortunately, many of these sensitives are unaware of the need for proper training and the closing of the chakras.  In response to the impending meltdown they turn to an addiction which then masks the underlying cause even more.  If one turns to alcohol, the effects are temporary.  The alcohol depresses the system creating a false illusion that the individual is not experiencing the massive overload that they are, while simultaneously maintaining all the chakras in the open mood.  This brings in more stimuli and causes the individual to begin a cycle of drinking in hopes of not feeling the immediate affects of the meltdown.  While this may delay the inevitable ‘break’ of the sensitive, it affects the adrenal system as well causing additional fatigue, loss of appetite, moodiness and an inability to deal with stress (Balch & Balch 91).  These symptoms can mimic depression thus throwing the individual into a cycle of changing diagnoses and recommended medication all without addressing the true cause of the individual’s situation. 
     Others may turn to illegal substances, such as cocaine or ecstasy, with similar consequences.  The use of these drugs are harder to mask from a professional for any length of time.  Consequently, the true issue is long forgotten as treatment for the substance is begun.  The sensitive knows that the substance is not the original problem, but unless they are educated within the realm of psychology and the occult, they are likely to follow the professional’s opinion and prescribed course of treatment.  They may also realize that their occult experiences are causing the problems, but be too scared to mention it to a therapist in fear of being discredited.  All the sensitive knows is that they want to feel normal.  Other addictions that may arise are to food, shopping or work.  When an individual becomes addicted to work, their self-esteem often rises due to societal acceptance that they are working hard.  They may focus all their time and attention to their job thus allowing them to believe that they are not affected by their sensitivities.  However, when a sensitive spends too much time with others and not enough time alone relaxing, the meltdown is merely around one of the upcoming corners.   Symptoms of anxiety usually are the first to surface.
     The sensitive may begin to experience a variety of symptoms from obsessions to persistent worrying.  They may begin by avoiding certain people or situations in the fear that their pending incompetence will begin to show.  At this point, others generally see only the fantastic job the person is doing. However, the phobia is intense enough to cause a marked increase in the individual’s anxiety when presented with the situation in addition to their normal routine.  Again, others often do not see the impairment in functioning because the individual is afraid of their own potential insanity.  When describing these symptoms to a professional, the diagnosis of Social Phobia is common (DSM 456).  This anxiety can become so debilitating that the individual does not leave the house for any reason besides work; they become agoraphobic.  Or they use a mundane activity, such as hand washing,  to distract themselves from their anxieties.   Simply attempting to channel can cause an increase in energy mimicking an anxiety disorder (Roman 186).  When individuals begin channeling, they tend to engulf themselves within the new experience oftentimes feeling an overabundance of energy which they mistakenly perceive to be anxiety.  As they continue the practice, without the fundamental trainings, they continue to mistake this rush of energy as part of the process.  If these symptoms are presented to a therapist, the probable diagnosis would be Anxiety Disorder  NOS (DSM 484) which is often treated with an anti-anxiety medication causing a shutdown of the charkas.  When the individual goes home to attempt to channel again, he finds that it is almost impossible, becomes depressed and returns to the therapist with a new set of symptoms.  On the other hand, if the individual continues to delve into these type of spiritual arenas without proper guidance, they will often begin to experience a feeling of restlessness, being fatigued easily, difficulty concentrating , irritability and sleep disturbances.  Medication for  Generalized Anxiety Disorder would be prescribed (DSM 476).  The underlying features I have seen within all sensitives without the proper training is the belief that they are not going insane, but they do not know what is happening or where to turn.   Consequently, they wait until they can no longer tolerate the symptoms to look for help.  The first place they will often go to is the CMHC where clinicians are required to base their impressions on the DSM, not on psychic phenomena.  Even if an individual is lucky enough to find a therapist that recognizes the underlying cause, the availability of appropriate treatment is usually limited to none.  Holistic healers may fill the void in these cases. But unless they have been appropriately trained in both the occult and psychology, it is improbable that the individual will benefit beyond someone simply listening to them and telling them they are not insane.  There are as many courses available today on how to become a healer as there are on how to channel; most found among the bookshelves of the “metaphysical” bookstores, not in appropriate schools.
     Appropriate treatment can be found for such difficulties, however.  Jungian psychology explored depth psychology including the psychoanalysis of dreams, studying the collective unconscious and entering into the shadow side of oneself.  These areas are often those opened up as one begins this spiritual path.  Jung admitted that to enter into the realm of the collective unconscious, or the archetypal arena, may itself cause others to question our sanity especially as we enter into a ‘madness‘ while we dialogue with these seemingly extraterrestrial entities.  We are going outside of the accepted behavior of our tribes, that which is embedded within our cells.  Without proper ego strength we may easily slide into true psychological illness as defined by the DSM rather than be able to continue on our journey.  These difficulties cause an additional problem for clinicians; they not only need to understand what isn’t true mental illness but also need to be aware if one slides in and out of psychic conditions.

     Jung used dream analysis within his psychotherapy techniques as a usual practice.  He believed that the unconsciousness plays a leading role in the formation of neuroses and that dreams are a direct expression of this unconscious (1).  He used fantasies, memories, irrational experiences of dreams to assist his patients in obtaining information regarding hidden factors of their personality.  Jung believed that “as long as these are undiscovered, they disturb his waking life and betray themselves only in the form of symptoms” (16).  He attributed symptoms of anxiety to the separation of the two realms of the psyche, the conscious and the unconscious.  He did not believe the unconscious is a demonic monster (16), but rather that people actually had the knowledge of their own needs locked within their unconscious (59).  He referred to a portion of this unconscious knowledge as the collective consciousness (71) or “an unconscious psychic activity present in all human beings which not only gives rise to symbolic pictures today, but was the source of all similar products of the past” (71-2).  He also incorporated the idea of the Shadow side here: an individual is guaranteed that they will experience depressive symptomology  before feeling better as they traverse their dark sides.  For centuries people have believed that the soul is an integral part of an individual’s personality and yet by the end of the 19th century we found ourselves with a “psychology without a soul” (Jung, 173).
     In order to regain this concept of soul, our society has begun a free-for-all in terms of knowledge.  Again we turn to the bookstores to see how to connect with our shadow side.  We find books on dream interpretation, communing with your inner self and how to end daily chaos.  What we are not aware of is that communing with our inner self means opening up the shadow side, the daimonic, that part of us that we have repressed since birth due to fear.  Instead of the wonderful non-chaotic life we were anticipating, we find ourselves within the depths of our own hell unable to see any light.  Our dreams, our thoughts, our visions are full with the dark side of our existence.  We’re afraid, we panic and we run to the nearest doctor for help who has no idea of the spiritual path that we have been attempting to open.  Instead we tell him only of our symptoms for fear that he may refer us to the doctor upstairs, the psychiatrist.  Medication is prescribed and all seems well until some unknown day down the road.  You have opened up these channels and without proper closure, they can cause you to go psychologically mad.    This is when the DSM is a valid tool to use.  However, I believe it could have been avoided if only one went through the proper channels and training to understand their demons.
     Dennis explains in her book Embrace of the Daimon, that when one enters into this dark world by opening up their sensitivities, they may begin to experience unknown energy fields or not be able to sense the boundary between themselves and their partner (25).  She defines the daimon as being a “messenger of the divine” and not only of the devil (51).  A psychotherapist without the understanding of the daimonic may easily begin to treat the individual for schizophrenia.  He hears the individual is experiencing hallucinations and disorganized speech; he invites the paranoia rather than attempting to understand the soul of the individual.  Psychotherapist, Rollo May, explains that when “one element takes over the total personality, we have daimon possession, the traditional term through history for psychosis”  (May 197).  However, he suggests that this type of psychosis can be treated as such and not as a mental illness.  May continues to say that psychological theory’s underlying belief is that individual’s ought to be able to conduct their lives by rational rules, thus making them socially productive and content with themselves, if only they would allow psychotherapist’s to change a few of their “inefficient, unproductive, unhappy traits” (May 203).  Mystics, psychics and occult students all know that the world does not run by rational rules.  Again, tribal beliefs continue to surface while being questioned by the Aquarian Age philosophy of honor oneself.  However, if one allows himself to become totally  immersed in the imaginal fields, it will cause one to become dissociated from life, incapable of living within society.  And, to immerse oneself completely in the side of the demon will cause a sociopath personality.  Often times when individuals are caught between these two worlds, they choose to attempt to ignore them both only to be plagued with “disturbing dreams, illness, anxiety, depression, or psychosomatic symptoms” (Dennis 73) for once doors are opened they are not shut automatically.  We have invited them in, now we need to welcome them rather than mask them with addictions or medications.
     Jung also explains that not all archetypes are the same in terms of the psyche (Pascal, 68).  When one identifies with the archetypal figure of God or the Devil, clinicians quickly slap on the diagnosis of psychosis and calls in the psychiatrist.  These clinicians are not trained to assist the individual in walking through the experiences, the dreams, the journey.  But mystics have spoken to God for centuries and the perils have been known.  Armstrong discusses “the immense perils of this spiritual journey” (212).  In her example, only one of three rabbis “was mature enough to survive the mystical way unscathed” (213).  She explains that one rabbi died while the other went mad.  Why have we not learned from past history?
     I believe that our society has been brainwashed with the need for immediate gratification.  “Suffering and pain are natural aspects of life, not necessarily signs of sickness” (Pascal, 100).  As we travel through these pains, we learn to live life; without living life, we become ill and neurotic.  These are times when we are in need of the DSM and today‘s psychotherapists.  For instance, as mentioned previously, we need sufficient ego-strength to experience daimonic images, as well as a good self-esteem and appropriate boundaries.  These can be learned from a psychotherapist.  Additionally, as mentioned throughout this paper, when individuals do not have the needed ego-strength, they can become mentally ill and travel into the realm of the true schizophrenic, borderline personality, narcissistic personality or schizoid personality.  The narcissistic personality is defined as someone experiencing a grandiose sense of self-importance, is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, has a sense of entitlement, lacks empathy and shows arrogance (717).   And the schizoid personality is described as an individual having little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences; takes pleasure in few, if any, activities; lacks close friends, shows emotional coldness; and appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others (697).
     Clinicians must be aware, though, that these symptoms also mimic those experiences corresponding to the meeting of the daimonic side of their existence; the archetypal realm of the occult; when one enters without proper support.  They also mimic the experience as one enters into the mystical realm of the divine without proper instruction of opening and closing energy systems.  However, if an individual decides that they are unwilling to truly heal and wish to remain the victim of life rather than  implementing a spiritual practice to mature beyond their present state, true mental illness sets in.

     The borderline personality, mentioned above,  is defined by the DSM as someone who uses frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment, experiences a pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, identity disturbance, destructive impulsivity, recurrent suicidal behavior, continual feelings of emptiness and severe dissociative symptoms (710). Borderline personality can be caused by the blending of your aura with other entities as discussed above, or it can be triggered by channeling several entities at once and not having the knowledge to know how to disengage from them.  This happens, particularly, with entities who do not wish to be disengaged, such as daimonic entities who have been waiting since your birth to be released.  The process of releasing them is not difficult, but the ignorance of that process can be life-changing.  Dissociation usually occurs.  This is when a person has at least two “distinct identities or personality states (each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving relating to, and thinking about the environment and self) and at least two of these identities or personality states recurrently take control of the person’s behavior“.  The individual also appears to be unable to recall important personal information (DSM 529).    Fortunately, complete dissociation appears to be the least occurring symptom from delving into the occult, though it is the most dangerous.


    As described in the Introduction of this thesis, Fortune believed that psychic pathologies can be  categorized into three areas: problems of hypersensitivity, the inability to break the connection with an outside entity, and the dissociation of the personality.   I believe that I have shown that this is true.  I believe that the majority of cases presenting themselves at CMHC today are experiencing a hypersensitivity that is bothersome due to ignorance and inexperience.  I believe that the longer these sensitive individuals take in order to present themselves, the worse the symptoms become due to their difficulty closing spiritual gates they have opened and ultimately the possibility of dissociating due to the extreme suffering they have been experiencing.  I am not suggesting that we do away with the DSM for there are many individuals who do fit the criteria for true mental illness.  I am suggesting that we expand this book of pathology to include a section on psychic pathologies, pathologies that can be treated without medication or behavioral techniques but rather by delving into the core of the individual and supporting that individual through the voyage.  In order to do this, I believe that we are in need of a new psychological approach which includes the psychic pathologies of hypersensitivity, blending with entities and dissociation among the pages of symptoms.  It appears that as our civilization has become more materialistic, “the problem of survival has forced us to get rid of that relaxed, intuitive awareness in favour of our present narrow, anxiety-ridden consciousness.  We have deliberately suppressed our psychic faculties in favor of efficiency” (Colin 202).  However, as the Aquarian Age introduces the spiritual movement weaving its way into lay peoples lives allowing them the opportunity for an intimate relationship with the divine while they simultaneously have to pay the mortgage, it is also creating a spiritual madness for those without support.  We are opening up realities not contained within our cultural understanding that mimics mental illness.  Our psychical sensitivities are increasing while our mental health arena appears to be sinking like Atlantis.  Medications, visualizations or a mere change in behavior will not address a needed soul change.  The only way we will evolve will be to go through the fears, feel the fears, become friends with them and completely understand them.  Only then will they not control us and truly make us pathological.  Unfortunately, most psychotherapists have been trained in talk therapy or behavioral therapy, not experiential therapy.  They are unaware of when an anxiety symptom is pathological or merely a response to over-stimulation.  They have not been trained in how to properly assess and ask questions of their clients.  Only those individuals of great fortitude, confidence and the luck to find a spiritual director understanding the current dilemma of the psychological world are likely to survive the collision of these two terrains.  May addresses an additional problem within today’s clinical world.    He says that to change the patient’s concepts, symbols, and myths surrounding the daimonic experience is essential in order to gain power over it.  The individual cannot continue to name the daimonic with ancient Piscean terminology, words of the tribe.  Medieval mystics were aware of this need as they insisted on naming the bothersome demons so they could gain the power to exorcise them.  However, when therapists diagnoses, or name,  a condition today, they seem to be hoping that the naming itself will create the change.  I agree with May when he says that “we stand off and get a temporary security by diagnosis, labels talking about symptoms, and are relieved of the necessity of using will in action or of loving” (May 209).  It seems that we have become more afraid of our clients than they are of their problems.


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